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Catalog of Selected Works (All Voicings)

Here is a selected list of available works. If you have any questions or requests, please use the contact form to send me an email.


The following scores are available through online publishers as well as from the composer in some instances. See Publisher information on Contact page for publisher links, or click or tap the underlined publisher name below, which will take you to a list of my works. Not all works from a publisher's catalog are listed on this web page. In the following alphabetical web page list, the abbreviations refer to the following publishers:


BBP - Barlow Bradford Publishing

JWP - J. W. Pepper

SELF - Self-published by composer

Click or tap the underlined publisher abbreviations that are associated with each piece, and you'll be linked to the piece itself on the publisher site. 


Curve of Gold
Clear evening
stars to hold
Echoes from the Heart

- A -



BBP|  $4.10  | SATB with divisi in four movements  |  a cappella | YouTube link is HERE


Just as the ancient practice of alchemy endeavored to turn dross into gold, this set of Teasdale poems traces through its four movements a series of poetic and musical transformations along life's journey: grief turns into gold, impermanence and the fear of loss transform into love, a sheen of iridescence is conveyed to us by our lovers, and finally, the ultimate transformation occurs when we pursue the path that beauty unfolds for us. The meter and rhythm are derived from speech. This piece contains many instances of jazz-based harmonies, which results in a colorful harmonic palette. 

Alchemy is a popular piece, especially with university ensembles and skilled community choruses. For a review of this work, which was featured as a noteworthy piece in a Chorus America column, click or tap HERE


Alchemy was selected for inclusion in the prestigious PROJECT : ENCORE catalog of contemporary choral works. For more information, click or tap the following link:



Following is a description that is published in the October 2017 ACDA Choral Journal publication, page 75.










All My Songs for You

BBP|  $3.50  | SSAA in three movements with piano | See individual YouTube links below:

A Net of Words

Did You Never Know

In All My Songs

All My Songs for You is a three-movement work commissioned by the Ancora women's ensemble that sets Sara Teasdale poems, all from her 1920 work Flame and Shadow. The music is tonal with colorful harmonies, some jazz-based. Sara Teasdale (1884–1933), an American lyric poet who often focused on themes of love, the beauty of nature, and life’s final transitions, was considered to be one of America’s finest women poets. The work is a meditation on various aspects of love in which each of the songs has a unique focus. These three works can also be performed separately or as pairs as needed.

The first song,
A Net of Words, explores the ineffability of love by adding a musical dimension that helps us understand what cannot fully be expressed in words alone. The music is rich, deep, and enveloping. The second song, Did You Never Know, also explores inexpressible love but from a different perspective, that of unspoken and unrequited love. This movement is framed as a duet in which the two singers sing the same text but never exactly to each other. The spare accompaniment and haunted melodies leave us to contemplate that anxious and silent emptiness, too, is an aspect of love. The third work, In All My Songs, gives voice to Teasdale’s epiphany that all her love poems would live on changelessly, even beyond life itself, as she writes: “It will live on in all my songs for you when I am gone.”

Arcturus in Autumn

Movement 6 from Stars forever, while we sleep 

BBP | $2.90 |SATB |  a cappella | YouTube link is HERE


This piece explores Sara Teasdale's autumnal mood as she examines the heavens and laments how the star Arcturus, "bringer of spring," leaves the autumn skies so as not to bear witness to the withering of days. This mostly homophonic piece features harmonies alternately stark and rich that foretell the lengthening nights of autumn into winter. 

Ave Maris Stella

JWP |  $2.00 | SSA trio or three-part women's chorus  |  a cappella  | YouTube link is HERE


This contemporary a cappella setting of an ancient hymn requires three skilled soloists for the trio version or an advanced women's chorus. It employs shifting tonal centers as well as complex harmonic structures. Ranges from meditative to dramatic in the opening verse settings to a tranquil barcarolle that recalls the oar strokes of a gondolier and the gentle swells of the sea. Ends with a modal section reminiscent of the medieval period, though with a modern interpretation. 


BBP  |  $3.80 |  SATB with divisi in three movements with tenor soloist in movement II  | a cappella  |  YouTube link is HERE


Awakening is complex harmonically although basically tonal and features a tenor solo in the second movement. The focus of the first movement is the joy that comes from finding a kindred soul in a “wilderness of hostile smiles.” The second movement is a rapturous memory from youth of a night spent in a glade, witness to magical elements of nature, a glowing magenta sunset, the mysteries of night, and, finally, fragrant dawn. In the third movement, the poem expresses hopes and desires for a night together that may last a lifetime but which in any case concludes with the image of a restful place among the leaves and grasses. Robin McNeil, reviewer for Opus Colorado, had this to say about a performance of Awakening: “ of the high points of this concert for me at least was a composition written in 2007 by Donald Skirvin entitled Awakening … which is a startlingly beautiful piece that is incredibly complex harmonically. It is in three movements and has a tenor solo in the second movement which was sung by Maestro Banks (Ed. note: the conductor of The Esoterics) as he conducted. Again Banks many skills were displayed. He didn’t just sing. He is outstanding. But I hasten to add that he was surely motivated by this beautiful piece of music written by Donald Skirvin.”


- C -


Canticles of Crimson

JWP  ($3.80)| SATB in five movements with soprano soloist and piano |  YouTube link is HERE


Canticles of Crimson sets six poems written by Carl Sandburg. The work's five movements present Sandburg’s recollections and imaginings about love (requited and unrequited), life cycles (spring through winter and the beginning of life to its end), memories, loss, and, perhaps, reconciliation if not redemption. In short, the human condition. These poems have certain commonalities and resonances that led me to select them for this work. For example, aspects of love are themes common to three poems, which begin and end the work. Structurally, the chorus is featured in two movements and the soprano soloist joins the chorus in three movements. The work runs approximately 20 minutes.


Clear Evening

Movement 2 from Stars forever, while we sleep

BBP |  $2.90 |  SATB divisi |  a cappella | YouTube link is HERE


This movement explores Sara Teasdale's autumnal mood as she gazes into a summer's eve filled with fireflies and the scents of apple, dewy pine, and rose. The evocative atmosphere takes the chorus and audience through moods and emotions that finally resolve in spoken words, "fall asleep, fall asleep," as the singers conclude this quiet, reflective work.

Curve of Gold

BBP | $4.10 | SATB in four movements with soprano soloist and piano | YouTube link is HERE


This piece is a meditation on love's journey as we seek, find, and sometimes lose our way. The musical language is modern but tonal with rich chordal underpinnings and features a robust piano part. This setting of Sara Teasdale poems explores love's journey through four vignettes. The set opens with the tale of ephemeral love that compares the eternal cycles of the moon to the brevity of love itself. The second movement expresses how another's love transforms our common experience and sets the shared surroundings "delicately alight." The third movement contemplates love's loss, and the memories of kinder times. The final movement describes how we can carry love as a beacon, a lamp, through the darkness as life reaches its journey's end. Premiered by Seattle Choral Company in June 2015 with Tess Altiveros as the soprano soloist. 


- D -


Dona eis requiem

SELF | $3.00 |  SA or treble voices, TB, and SAB with piano  | settings of three sections from the requiem mass: Pie Jesu, Agnus Dei, and Lux Aeterna | sound files are available on the publisher web pages


Suitable for concert or service use. A modern setting, tonal, and very accessible for singers and audience or congregation.


- E -


Echoes from the Heart

SELF | Contact composer for price| SATB double chorus in three movements with some divisi | a cappella | YouTube Link to second movement is HERE


The three movements of this piece represent three temporal stages: departure, arrival, and return. The first movement—Ancient roses—represents a time portal that moves us through time and memory into a Proustian past. The dream sequence of the middle movement—Longing, dreaming—explores who the dreamer is and what the dream might be. In the third movement—I remember—the shifting rhythms of the antiphony emphasize subtle changes of meaning in the same phrase. The titles of each movement are incorporated into the poems to heighten the sense of remembrance. The author's poems are rather like haiku that, in a few words, can crystallize a feeling or a thought for all time.


- F -


Fear No More

BBP | $3.20 |  SATB |  a cappella | YouTube link is HERE


The text for this piece is taken from a threnody (a song sung in memory of the dead) whose first line is, “Fear no more the heat o’ the sun,” text that is taken from Shakespeare’s play Cymbeline. The text lays out the argument against mourning and provides an elegiac injunction not to fear death but instead to find consolation in death’s “quiet consummation.” While the play itself is not often performed, the lines I have set have also inspired other composers, notably Gerald Finzi, and other English composers such as Robert Quilter and Ian Higginson to create art songs. The American composer Stephen Sondheim set two of the four stanzas as a solo for the character of William Shakespeare in his musical The Frogs. In this play, the character of Dionysus wants to hear Shakespeare speak of a young man's feelings about death. And his response is the song "Fear No More."


In this choral setting, I have followed the structure of the poem (four stanzas of six lines each) and created four sections, all of which begin a treatment of the words, “Fear no more,” that employs different voicings and registers and which is followed by thematic variations on some common elements. The final stanza is a renunciation of exorcisers, witchcraft, ghosts, and anything ill that could trouble the grave. This last segment uses new, dramatic material, and it begins and ends with a treatment of the words, “Fear no more,” which is set using an irregular time signature of 7/4 so that the rhythmic pulse becomes a temporal and spacious. 

The fleeting world

Movement 3 from Songs of Enlightenment

BBP |  $2.90 | SATB |  a cappella | YouTube link is HERE


Quiet, meditative final movement of "Songs of Enlightenment," a three-movement work of Buddhist texts and Buddhist-themed poetry. Rich harmonies and striking poetic imagery make this a memorable concert piece. The text focuses on the concept of impermanence, beginning with verses from the Buddhist scripture, The Diamond Sutra, and concluding with a setting of a poem titled "Impermanence" by the late poet, Gordon E. Abshire. The final lines are: "Cold sunset, colder river / Leaves tumble in the meadow / This season comes too soon / Night settles quickly, gently.


Movement 5 from Stars forever, while we sleep

BBP |  $2.90 | SATB divisi |  a cappella | YouTube link is HERE


This piece explores Sara Teasdale's autumnal mood as she contemplates French palaces and the memory of "ladies lovely and immoral" who "glide down the gilded stairs." At the end of the work, an autumn garden from centuries past is imagined along with the ghostly kings and hunters who roam through "four centuries of autumns, four centuries of leaves" as pentatonic melodies intertwine. 


the fountain

from Choral Nocturnes

SELF |  Contact Composer for price | SATB |  a cappella | YouTube link is HERE


The poem expresses the musical voice of the poet who sings of love but whose audience is a "satyr carved in stone," drowsy marble peacocks, and a heedless "great white moon." 

- G -


The Giver of Stars

BBP |  $2.90 | SATB and piano |  YouTube link is HERE


Setting of Amy Lowell poem of the same name that describes the ecstasy that derives from association with overwhelming beauty either in the abstract or, perhaps, in the joy that a personal relationship can bring.  Good secular piece for community or university choruses.


- H -


Hymn to the Moon

JWP |  $2.00 | SSATBB | a cappella | YouTube link is HERE


A rich and melodic setting of a text from the Greek poet Homer as translated by Percy Bysshe Shelley. This six-part setting contains many instances of divisi resulting in a lush choral "moonscape." The ending evokes a lunar temple in which chants are offered to the Queen of the Night Sky.


- L -



Lord, it is night

BBP |  $2.60 | TTBB or SATB and organ | YouTube link is HERE


A meditative prayer for the night in its stillness, complexity, and depth. Scored for either TTBB or SATB (occasional five- and six-part divisi), includes a cappella sections interspersed with single-line, bass organ accompaniment. Can be effective in a service context whose theme is evening prayer but may also be used in a concert setting. Mostly quiet writing except for the setting of the words, "The night heralds the dawn. Let us look expectantly to a new day, new joys, new possibilities" where the chorus reaches a crescendo supported by the organ. Non-denominational, suitable for most religious settings.

- O -


- P -


Places, like music

SELF |  Contact  composer for price | SSAATTBB |   a cappella  YouTube link is HERE


Sara Teasdale’s poem, Places, begins: “Places I love come back to me like music . . .” What follows is a catalog of the places and experiences of significance to the author. In setting this poem, I have used a through composed technique to provide a musical setting that varies by place and experience. For example, the final musical memory describes an ocean voyage, swelling waves, deep voices calling from the depths, and eerie phosphorescence. To capture this experience, the music creates waveforms in the lower voices while the sopranos float above the waters and carry the story to its conclusion.

- S -

Sandburg Songs

SELF |  Contact  composer for prices | SATB and SSAATTBB in three movements| Scored for chorus, string orchestra, and piano

Carl Sandburg once wrote that “Poetry is an echo, asking a shadow to dance.” Although I have always found his poems to be forthright and compelling, deeper meanings, additional echoes arise out of the shadows and naturally emerge upon reflection. And, of course, not everyone hears the same echoes or sees the same images through the shadows. In the case of the four poems I selected for this work, they immediately spoke to me and coalesced in a fusion of love’s warmth, transcendent longing, and the persistence of memory beyond even death itself. Your interpretations may vary, of course, but those were some of the concepts and emotions that I worked with in writing this piece. In the composition process, I strove to underpin the meaning of the text in the music itself in which certain choices as to structure and harmonies, melodies, rhythms, and so on, related directly to my personal interpretation of the text.

HERE  is a YouTube link to the complete work.

Following are links to the individual movements:

  1. You Remember

  2. Some I Keep

  3. A Face I Know

The Ships of Yule

JWP | $2.00 | SATB, SSA, SAB, SA, TB, and TTBB |  sound files are available on the publisher web pages


This setting of Bliss Carman's poem, "The Ships of Yule," is lively and rhythmic and contains elements of a traditional sea chantey. The music is tonal with lots of harmonic color and forays into related keys. The poem refers to Yule, and so the piece is appropriate for Christmas or winter celebrations. 

Sometimes, for eternity

BBP | $2.90 | SATB and violin | YouTube link is HERE


This work is an ode to those whose lives were well-lived in music. The setting is direct and accessible, employs rich harmonies, and is constructed with careful voice leading. The piece ends with the lyric "Each dawn: A song sparrow; On my headstone Trilling lux aeterna. Not for me; But not minding If I'd listen Sometimes For eternity." 

Songs for Genie

SELF | $3.50 for all songs in one document; $1.50 - $2.00 per individual song | Treble voices or SA (also available in TB and SAB) 

These three feline-themed works can be programmed separately or as a set with three separate ensembles each singing one song.


Descriptions of individual songs and YouTube links:

Marmalade Maddy was written as a unison piece for beginning treble voices (SA). It is a humorous, heartfelt, and playful description of a “funny and furry and finicky cat.” The piece features a repeating melody line over a lively accompaniment that delves into jazz-based harmonies. In the last few measures, there are opportunities for choreographed movements performed by the choir while singing. Also included during this section is an optional divisi into two-parts. Duration ≈1:53. YouTube link is HERE

The Fog was written for intermediate singers and is available for treble voices (SA), men’s voices (TB), and for three-part mixed choir (SAB). In the last few measures, there is an optional divisi. The focus was to create a simple and serene work using flowing vocal lines above a fluid piano accompaniment that mimics the rolling swirls of fog itself. Duration ≈2:30. YouTube link for SA version is HERE

Tyger, Burning Bright is a dynamic and rhythmic work for intermediate to advanced singers that sets the famous William Blake poem. It is available for treble voices (SA), men’s voices (TB), and for three-part mixed choir (SAB). The piano accompaniment is used to describe certain features of the poem. Notice, for example, the hammer-like vocal and pianistic blows that occur in the fourth stanza followed by the lyrical setting in piano and voices for the fifth stanza. Duration ≈2:22. YouTube link for SA version is HERE


Songs of Enlightenment

SELF (and BBP for third movement only: See The Fleeting World) | Contact composer for price | SATB with divisi in three movements | a cappella |YouTube link to the third movement, The Fleeting World, is  HERE


The first movement (I Take Refuge) is scored for chorus and handbells (or hand chimes) and sets several traditional Buddhist texts in both original languages (Pali and Sanskrit) and English. It concludes with an optional invitation for the audience to chant "OM" while the chorus sings. The second movement (Verses and Mantras of Compassion) sets various scriptures and mantras, some in the original languages (Japanese and Tibetan) as well as in translation to English. The third movement, The Fleeting World, opens with a quotation in English from the Diamond Sutra and continues with a setting of a poem that  explores the impermanence of life in modern terms and striking imagery borrowed from a close observation of natural processes. The first two movements are undergoing revision. For a review copy of the complete work, contact the composer. The third movement, The Fleeting World, is available through J.W. Pepper.


Songs of the Equinox and Solstice

SELF | Contact composer for price | SATB in four movements | a cappella |YouTube link to Fall Equinox: The Delight Song of Tsoai-talee is HERE


The four movements of this work describe the four seasons associated with the equinox and solstice: Spring equinox: New world; Summer solstice: Wheel of dreams; Autumn equinox: The delight song of Tsoai-talee; Winter solstice: Cedar smoke and snowflake. The first three are settings of M. Scott Momaday poems and the fourth is a setting of a poem by Gerald Hausman. May be performed as a set or as individually programmed works.


Stars forever, while we sleep

SELF | Contact composer for price |Some individual movements are listed separately | Nine-movement a cappella work in various vocal configurations, including SATB, double-chorus, and triple-chorus movements, with an optional solo quartet in three performance versions are available from the composer: the original nine-movement version, a six-movement version, and a five-movement version |YouTube recordings are available for all separate movements; a YouTube link to the six-movement version is  HERE


...stars to hold

JWP |  $2.75 | SATB with divisi and SSATBB five-movement work that includes three soloists (Soprano, Alto, Baritone)  | a cappella | YouTube link is HERE


The piece sets the poetry of Sara Teasdale that all reference the stars above and use these celestial bodies to explore the human condition. The first movement is SATB divisi, the second through fourth movements are SSATBB plus soloist, and the fifth movement joins the soloists into a trio that sings antiphonally with the SATB divisi chorus. 

- T -


There will come soft rains

BBP | $2.60 | SATB divisi | a cappella |  YouTube link is HERE


There will come soft rains is from one of Teasdale's last collections of poems, Flame and Shadow. In this collection, especially in section VIII (which contains five other anti-war poems) Teasdale lamented her country's entry into World War I, and her lyric poetry became tinged with foreboding and resignation.  The music setting attempts to bring the contemplative nature of this poem to the foreground. It has frequent instances of 8-part harmony and is basically tonal.


There will come soft rains is featured in the June/July 2017 edition of the ACDA Choral Journal, page 79, as part of the PROJECT : ENCORE article.

Following is a description that was published in the journal:

"Stunning setting for choirs with secure singers (some minimal 3-part divisi). Very tonal and beautifully melodic, with close (sometimes surprising) harmonic clusters. Many programming applications for this timeless text. Worth the work! 

For more information, click or tap the following links:



Through Love's Eyes

JWP | $4.95 | Baritone and piano |  A link to the video performance is available HERE.


Through Love’s Eyes for baritone and piano sets William Shakespeare’s varied commentary about love in four of his plays: A Midsummer Night’s Dream, The Merchant of Venice, Love’s Labour’s Lost, and Romeo and Juliet. Range is G2-D4. The compositional language is tonal and rich.


This work is the first movement of a trio of solo works taken from two other plays, Macbeth and The Tempest. The entire set is titled Love, Madness, and Mystery whose additional movements which will soon be available through this website.


- W -


Weathered Days

from Choral Nocturnes

BBP |  $2.90 | SATB | a cappella | A link to the performance is HERE

The settings of these five haiku-like poems form a narrative in which the first three poems are tinged with melancholy as leaves are torn from branches, memories languish, and plum blossoms offer fragrance even to the one who breaks the branch. But in the final two poems, the piece turns toward dawn and shimmering light, and the dark night passes. Rich timbres underline the spare lines of poetry. The compositional style shifts between homophonic and polyphonic passages throughout the piece.

When All Falls Silent

BBP |  $2.90 | SATB | a cappella | The premiere performance by Utah Chamber Artists is available HERE.

This unaccompanied work is harmonically rich and written with frequent divisi. Homophony predominates along with instances of antiphonal writing between men’s and women’s voices. Performance time is about 4:45 m:s.

In setting Charles Anthony Silvestri’s contemplative When All Falls Silent, I envisioned a journey through a sound world that would embrace singers and listeners alike with warmth, depth, and peace. I began to compose this work in 2020 when the silence and isolation of the Covid-19 pandemic were pervasive. It was a solace to spend time with the text and work with its imagery, finding and then following the musical thread that linked calling and listening and that opened a clear path through stresses and struggles, finally revising and completing the work in early 2022. Now as then, tensions and struggles still prevail. But for a few moments, perhaps this fusion of words, sounds, and silences can allay our anxieties and allow us to find peace and harmony within our hearts and our lives.


Winter Circle

from Four Songs of the Seasons

BBP | $2.60 | two-part treble voices or SA and piano | YouTube link is HERE


Comments by a director for a recent performance: "Working on your piece was a great experience for me and the singers. It presented good vocal and musical challenges for this age group, all the while being beautiful and captivating--they were always willing to keep working on it!" Here's a link to an interview with Sara Boos, Northwest Girlchoir director, and myself, a "behind the scenes" look at the work and its inspiration, and Sara's thoughts about the piece:


Behind the Scenes: "Winter Circle" by Don Skirvin 

Winter Circle is evocative and harmonically rich. The piano plays a constantly moving pattern while the voices float above it, like the stars in the Winter Circle itself. The lyrics consist of short descriptions of each star based on one or more of the following factors: Color and brightness of the star; Constellation in which the star is located; Zodiacal sign star reference; Reference to the star in mythology or in another historical reference such as the Dendera zodiac. To "decode" the lyrics, notice that the color always refers to the color of the star itself and may include another attribute. As an example, Aldebaran is referred to as "the fiery eye of the Bull." It's "fiery" because the star color is red. And it's the eye of Taurus in the constellation of the same name, hence the reference to the "eye of the Bull." The other lyrics can be decoded in a similar fashion. Additional information is available from the composer.

Winter Dances (Formerly Only the heart will hear)

BBP | $3.20 | SSA/TBB with piano or orchestral accompaniment | YouTube link to piano versions is HERE; orchestra version is HERE


This work is an evocation of the winter season. It begins with a sprightly tune that segues into a richly harmonic middle section that then returns to the up-tempo melodies that began the piece. The composition uses six-part harmony (SSA/TBB) forming a double chorus of female and male voices who often sing antiphonally. The accompaniment is either orchestral or a reduction for piano of the orchestral scoring. The work was originally titled "Only the heart will hear."


Winter Reverie

BBP| $3.50 | SSAA and soprano soloist, oboe, and piano | YouTube link is HERE


Winter Reverie is a  setting of two evocative Teasdale poems that re-create a winter scene of walking on a snowy night, enjoying a good meal in a restaurant, watching twilight descend under “ice-bowed trees,” and returning thanks for “… the mother who bore me."


Winter Scenes

SELF | Contact composer for price | eight-part mixed chorus in four movements with string orchestra and piano | YouTube links to each movement are listed below:



This work is a four-movement setting of Bliss Carman's poem, The Winter Scene. Recently, this work was accepted into the Project:Encore catalog of modern choral works. The reviewers said that the "Four parts (I.SATB; II.SSAA; III.TTBB; IV.SATB) (are) each a particular description of winter's physical and emotional state—timelessness, beauty, stillness, tranquility. Stunning choral and orchestral writing that makes full use of resources. A significant setting to anchor a winter/solstice concert. University level."

Winter's Cloak

SELF | $1.50 | SSAA with various divisi a cappella

A setting of a poem of the same name by Joyce Rupp. The central theme embraces the solace and deep creativity that resides in the quiet darkness of winter. The last lines of the poem are "Let me seek solace in the empty places of winter’s passage, those vast dark nights that never fail to shelter me." The SoundCloud link is to a performance of the work in dress rehearsal. The performance itself was canceled due to restrictions on group gatherings brought on by the COVID-19 pandemic. The link is HERE.



BBP | $5.80 | double chorus (SATB with SSAA) and string orchestra and piano in three movements | YouTube links to each movement are listed below:



Wintertide explores the temporal, physical, and emotional landscape of winter, its frosty scenes, rollicking celebrations, and languorous loving to while away the season's long, dark nights. To accomplish this, the composer has selected texts as chronologically diverse as quatrains by the Latin poet Horace; a sixteenth-century poem by the Englishman, Thomas Campion; lines from Longfellow's poem, Woods in Winter; and a meditation on the winter season penned by the Canadian poet, Carman Bliss, along with other fragments of poems.



Movement 8 from Stars forever, while we sleep

JWP |  $2.00 | SATB |  a cappella | YouTube link is HERE


This piece explores Sara Teasdale's somewhat ironic observation that "What we have never had remains; It is the things we have that go." She makes this observation in the context of an early spring night when winter is scarcely over. The piece is mostly homophonic and uses echoic phrases. The sprightly tempo somewhat belies the ironic text. 

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